Every women experience spotting at one time in their lifetime, a regular normal menstrual flow should last for 5days with blood loss (this may lead to anemia occasionally), however, spotting between periods may not be noticeable, it may be easily passed off as a normal part of the menstrual flow if you are just getting used to your body and its processes. More often than not, spotting between periods is regarded as abnormal uterine bleeding especially when it is taking in-between your periods. One of the best ways to ascertain that you have spotting in between periods is by inserting tampon into your birth canal, traces of bleed will be caught on the tampon, this will help you to know if the bleeding is coming from the rectum.
So what causes bleeding between periods?
The following medical conditions and physiological issues may cause spotting between periods:
1. Ectopic pregnancy
Ectopic pregnancy is development of the fetus in places other than the uterine cavity, such fetal implantations take place in the fallopian tube thus causing serious bleeding at advance stage.
2. Vaginal dryness
This may be caused by hormonal imbalance such as dips in estrogen levels. This occurs in women who are close to their menopause.
Oxidative stress is a killer as it upset a lot of mechanisms in the body. This may be more pronounced during menstrual cycles.
4. Miscarriage and premature abortion
After a miscarriage episode, uterine manipulations applied to remove dead cells and tissues from the uterus may create extra pressure on the uterus thus causing bleeding in between periods.
5. Irregular use of birth control pills
Starting and resuming birth control pills may cause fluctuations in hormonal levels. Dips in progesterone may cause estrogen levels to increase thus causing premature ejection of uterine tissues which may cause bleeding in between periods.
6. Previous pregnancy complications
Complications in pregnancies may cause spotting in between periods due to uterine manipulations that occur during such episodes. Complications such post-natal hypertension, non-removal of extra uterine tissues.
Underactive thyroid gland may cause low thyroxin levels in the bloodstream, this may also impact menstrual cycles such that there will be bleeding between periods.
Medical evaluation of uterine outgrowths may warrant biopsies which may affect your next menstrual cycle. Some of the signs you notice is bleeding between periods.
9. Genital warts
Injuries such as genital warts, polyps, trauma may also cause vaginal bleeding during periods. So also
10. Birth control devices
Birth control devices such as intrauterine devices (IUDs) and tampons may also irritate the neck of the uterus thus causing vaginal bleeding during menstrual cycles.
11. Cervical cancer
Cervical cancer can also cause uterine bleeding which may lead to profuse spotting during periods. Women between the ages of 25-64 years of age have been advised to always do pap-smear culture test for evidences of cervical cancer as early detection is always the best way to curb its spread.
You may also experience bleeding if you miss your progesterone-only pills as progesterone is one of the female reproductive hormones indicated in the smooth flow of periods. Before you take any emergency contraceptive pills do try to consult with your doctor.